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work including the author’s personal views on this work. The problems large- ly stemmed because the author didn’t clearly identify who held a particular view. The problems were exacerbated by the use of pronouns rather than specific names.

Using Drones—A New Geoscience Subspecialty

In column 166 in the Apr/May/Jun TPG, I reviewed recently published “Dilemmas of promoting geoscience workforce growth in a dynamically changing economy” by Christopher Keane and Maeve Boland of AGI”.2 Among other points, Keane and Boland pointed out that GIS expertise is a growing subspecialty in the geosciences. Francis Vierboom’s article, “Getting more from your drone: superpowers for onsite and offsite decision-makers,” in the February 2018 issue of The AusIMM Bulletin points out that using drones for a variety of important tasks is becoming easier and cheaper while the accuracy is increasing. Vierboom points out that “drones are more accurate than aerial surveys, safer than conventional ground survey options, and cheaper than both.” Expertise in flying drones coupled with GIS expertise is indeed a viable geoscience subspecialty that students should consider.

AGI Geoscience Currents — Important Job Choice Factors and Sexual Harassment

AGI Geoscience Currents consist of data snapshots of a wide variety of topics of interest to the geosciences, workforce/currents. Some of these top- ics are noted in AIPG’s weekly eNews. Two recent topics caught my eye, one on job choice and one on sexual harass- ment. Important Job Choice Factors for the Early-career Geoscience Workforce, 10/19/17, reports the results of 332 responses to a survey sent to geoscience graduates at the bachelor’s (163 respons- es), master’s (101 responses), and doctor- al levels (68 responses). All respondents ranked salary, intellectual challenge,

and job location as very important to important. Perceived work/life balance received the next highest rating. The relative ranking of these factors varied with the degree. Bachelor’s recipients ranked salary highest while master’s and doctor’s recipients valued intellec- tual challenge highest. See the full report at https://www.americangeosciences. org/workforce/currents/important-job- choice-factors-early-career-geoscience- workforce.

Sexual Harassment in the Sciences: Response by Professional Societies, 3/15/18, presents a follow-up to a 2016 workshop convened by the American Geophysical Union. There also was a ses- sion on this topic at the 2016 Geological Society of America Annual Meeting; see column 161, Jan/Feb/Mar ’17 TPG. The AGU workshop concluded that profes- sional societies should implement trans- parent and accessible codes of conduct or ethics that 1) specifically address sexual and other types of discrimination and bullying and 2) provide clear disciplinary procedures for violations. A graph accom- panying the text compared the number of societies with a code, a direct link to that code on the front page of the soci- ety’s website, the number of codes that addressed sexual harassment, and the number that contained clear guidelines for disciplinary action in 2016 and 2018. The numbers in each area increased from 2016 to 2018. AIPG specifically added Standard 4.4 and Rule 4.4.1 that specifically address harassment and discrimination to its Code of Ethics in June 2017. Interestingly, no society is recorded as containing disciplinary guidelines in 2016. Clearly, AIPG has had Disciplinary Procedures for many years. Both AIPG’s Code of Ethics and the Disciplinary Procedures are listed under “Ethics” on AIPG’s home page. I wonder why this wasn’t recognized. See the full report at https://www.ameri- sexual-harassment-sciences-response- professional-societies.

Ethical Considerations in Water Transactions

Barbara Murphy, CPG-6203, sent the link to an article, “Guest View – Water

2., accessed 2/16/18.

3. While Morrison uses “ethics” in his title, “morals” is a more accurate word.

4. Kevin Fedarko’s 2014 book, The Emerald Mile: the epic story of the fastest ride in history through the heart of the Grand Canyon, does an excellent job of presenting the BuRec’s dilemma and various other western water issues in addition to telling a fascinating story of running the Colorado River through the Grand Canyon.

38 TPG • Jul.Aug.Sep 2018

Transaction: Ethical Considerations,” by Richard Morrison, which was pre- sented at the March 2018 Arizona Water Resources Research Center Annual Conference: The Business of Water.3 Water rights in the west are very serious business. Just how water is allocated is the subject of lots of debate and legal actions. Questions of “highest and best use” are answered differently by dif- ferent groups with different agendas. Consider the schizophrenic duties of the US Bureau of Reclamation (BuRec). On the one hand, BuRec’s dams exist to pre- vent catastrophic flooding and to do so, lots of empty reservoir capacity should be maintained to catch spring runoff and big storms. On the other hand, the dams should be used to store as much water as possible to mitigate droughts and to do so, reservoirs should be kept as full as possible.4

Morrison points out that, “if you live in rural Arizona, when the subject is water transfers, you are not necessarily inter- ested in economic theory. You are definitely worried about water flowing to money and you shout out, ‘Hey, not so fast!’” While everyone is in favor of justice as a general concept, issues of economic and social justice quickly arise around water use and water rights.

Morrison presents six principles of economic justice that he asserts have widespread public and private approval. They are:

•Justice requires equal respect and concern for all.

•Justice requires special con- cern for the poor and oppressed.

•Justice requires responding to basic human needs.

•Justice requires human free- dom.

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