Landscape Lighting

International Protection Markings By Michael Grzywacz

The International Protection Markings, also known as Ingress Protection or IP codes/ratings, are standards that classify the degree of protection provided against intrusion (solid objects including body parts like hands and fingers), dust, accidental contact and water in electrical enclosures. The standard aims to provide users detailed information so that informed decisions can be made in the selection of electrical devices to meet an application’s criteria.

IP Ratings — Raising Performance Standards

IP standards were developed in Europe and adopted in the United States for lighting products around the year 2000. Prior to IP ratings, the standard for wet location performance testing for lighting products was the Underwriters Laboratory wet location rain test. That test consists of the fixture or lamp being “rained” on via showerheads at a specific angle for a designated period of time. During that time, the product is turned on and off (or cycled) to ensure that less than the allotted amount of water enters the

Table 1. Interpretation of IP Ratings — First Digit: Solids The first digit indicates the level of protection that the enclosure provides against access to hazardous parts (e.g., electrical conductors, moving parts) and the ingress of solid foreign objects.

Digit Object Size

0 Not protected 1 >50 mm

2 >12.5 mm 3 >2.5 mm 4 >1 mm

5 Dust protected 6 Dust tight Effective Against No protection against contact and ingress of objects

Any large surface of the body, such as the back of the hand, but no protection against deliberate contact with a body part

Fingers or similar objects Tools, thick wires, etc. Most wires, screws, etc.

Ingress of dust is not entirely prevented, but it must not enter in sufficient quantity to interfere with the satisfactory operation of the equipment. Complete protection against contact

No ingress of dust; complete protection against contact

Table 2. Interpretation of IP Ratings — Second Digit: Liquids The second digit indicates the level of protection of the equipment inside the enclosure against harmful ingress of water.

Digit Liquid Amount

0 Not protected 1 Dripping water

2 Dripping water when tilted up to 15 degrees

3 Spraying water

4 Splashing water 5 Water jets

6 Powerful water jets 7 Immersion up to 1 m 8 Immersion beyond 1 m Effective Against No protection against contact and ingress of liquids Dripping water (vertically falling drops) shall have no harmful effect.

Vertically dripping water shall have no harmful effect when the enclosure is tilted at an angle up to 15 degrees from its normal position.

Water falling as a spray at any angle up to 60 degrees from the vertical shall have no harmful effect.

Water splashing against the enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effect.

Water projected by a nozzle (6.3 mm) against enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effect.

Water projected in powerful jets (12.5-mm nozzle) against the enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effects.

Ingress of water in harmful quantity shall not be possible when the enclosure is immersed in water under defined conditions of pressure and time (up to 1 m of submersion).

The equipment is suitable for continuous immersion in water under conditions that shall be specified by the manufacturer. Normally, this will mean that the equipment is hermetically sealed. However, with certain types of equipment, it can mean that water can enter but only in such a manner that it produces no harmful effects.

32 Irrigation TODAY | April 2017

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