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examined statistical differences in the various parameters between the highest and lowest quartiles emanating from fasting glucose levels.

Also, positive ndings would encourage development of basic considerations like healthful lifestyle approaches in diet and exercise in order to improve glucose-insulin status in the general population. Finally, positive ndings would provide health workers a clinical guide to advance better general health.


From initial baseline readings gathered from a number of prior clinical investigations by the research group, Integrative Health Technologies (IHT), two collections of data were selected for this initial investigation. Since we worked primarily with clinical values gathered from ordinary volunteers, the measurements, for the most part, were expected to fall in the generally accepted normal ranges. So, correlations became a principal means to assess trends in health parameters along with standard statistical methods on quartile values. The IHT datum set is especially important, because it often includes body composition measurements. Body composition is superior to scale weight to assess the status of overweight/ obesity.36

The rst set of baseline data originated from a single study that previously reported on age-related hypertension in 107 females.37

The second set consisted of baseline data collected from the last 200 subjects recruited prior to the initiation of this examination, males (n42) and females (n158), involved in different protocols carried out by the IHT group. As a rst approximation, we wished to determine if fasting glucose levels that fell within the so-called non-diabetic range (equal or less than 125 mg/ dl) correlated to some extent with some chronic medical perturbations  many comprising the metabolic syndrome. To accomplish our major goals, the levels of circulating fasting serum glucose were independent variables and dependent variables were comprised of various measures of body composition, blood pressure, blood counts and blood chemistries in these early studies (Tables 1-4). Later, as a side bar, other correlations were made using cholesterols (Figs. 1a-c) as independent variables.

General Study Design of Previous Experiments To carry out the clinical investigations, all participants gave written informed consent that was in compliance with the Helsinki Declaration as approved by an ethics committee of IHT or an independent Institutional Review


The immediate aim of the present study is to provide a proof of concept overview of data representative of the general population in middle and late middle age. Many thousands of datum sets are available in our subject pool and the idea here is to look at only a few hundred of these to determine if there are sufcient grounds to pursue the larger study. Positive ndings in the present investigation would strengthen the hypothesis that glucose/insulin perturbations are at the heart of the increased incidence and severity of the various constituents making up the metabolic syndrome and could hasten/worsen the aging process.1,2,8,31-35

Board (IRB). After reviewing the study with a research technician, subjects were provided with a copy of the study’s informed consent and were asked to review it with their personal physicians to ensure they had no medical conditions that would preclude their participation. After fasting for at least 12 hours, most subjects completed a baseline test battery that included total-body DEA measures of body composition, blood pressure and resting heart-rate, and a 43-blood chemistry and circulating blood cell test panel. Blood chemistries were drawn at a Lab Corps Service Center of the subject’s choice.


Body Composition. DEA testing provided a three- compartment model of body composition: fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM), and bone mineral density (BMD). Measurements were made using a constant potential energy source at 78 kVp and a K-edge lter (cerium) to achieve a congruent, stable, dual-energy beam with effective energies of 40 and 70 keV.

Blood Chemistries and Counts. Following a fast of at least 12 hours, venous blood samples were obtained at a local drawing station of the subjects’ choice.

samples were collected and centrifuged to the required state within four hours. The samples were shipped at 4C to a central laboratory. Analyses were made by routine clinical procedures.

Statistical Analyses

Because the data were collected in a random fashion from different studies, not all parameters were necessarily measured in a given subject.

the different correlations will vary. After removing data from subjects with a fasting glucose level exceeding 125 mg/dl, values from the remaining subjects that exceeded three standard deviations from the average in a given dependent parameter were also removed.

linear regression statistical analyses were carried out by KaleidaGraph graphing and data analysis, Version 3.6, Synergy Software, Reading PA. A p 0.05 determined by using a table of critical values for Pearson correlations (r values) was considered to be statistically signicant and a p0.100.05 was designated as a trend. Differences between two columns (quartile examination) were assessed using Student’s t Test (2 tail).


fasting serum glucose levels at or under the accepted maximum of 125 mg/dl. After eliminating values of the dependent variables that exceeded or fell below three standard deviations from the mean, 97-99 values remained for analyses for each dependent variable.

Of 107 female subjects in the rst datum set,37

Concerning body composition in this group body weight, body mass index (BMI), body fat mass, and % body fat presented a signicantly positive correlation with fasting circulating glucose. No statistically signicant correlations were seen in fat free mass or bone mineral density (BMD). In the case of cardiac dynamics, systolic

79 99 had All Thus, the n values for Blood

and diastolic blood pressures showed a signicantly (Continued on next page)

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