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 to a new tactic. A standard should be in place requiring uniformed   the same plan in a crisis. Person-borne improvised explosive devices (PBIED). How do you stop a person with a bomb intent on killing as many as possible?  to this type of training, so the responsibility falls on SWAT, SRT and ERT teams. Does your team regularly conduct IED/suicidal bomb-     there are teams that do not. Either they do not have the knowledge or they continue to train for bread and butter operations that they know best. New Mexico Tech, through the Department of Homeland Securi-

- ic Materials Research and Testing Center in Socorro. This program  for law enforcement and is critical to staying abreast of this emerg- ing threat. Suicidal bombers can detonate their device several ways (dead man’s switch, handler or timer). Operators must know where and how to strike the suicidal bomber. If you cannot stop the device from detonating then you must train how to mitigate the blast if possible. Vehicle-borne improvised explosive device (VBIED). Cars, vans, trucks and even motorcycles can carry large amounts of explosives and are mobile delivery mechanisms. Most notable is Timothy McVeigh and the Ryder truck bomb he used outside the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995. How do you prevent a vehicle loaded with explosives from accessing the vehicle entrance that is present at most venues? These venues have this access point for deliveries and player parking. Most lead directly to the playing surface. If there is nothing to stop a VBIED, it can drive near or onto the playing surface and detonate. What is in place to stop it? Closed  - igation is the important word here. SWAT teams must be prepared to stop and take action against the driver and/or the vehicle. Assets are in place for traditional disturbances like angry or rowdy fans and - ues to operate in a reactionary mode. A shift from traditional think- ing to proactive thinking and a reallocation of resources is required. If someone told you that he was going to punch you in the face and break every bone, what would you do? Would you allow it to hap- pen? Of course not — you would defend yourself and guard against the attack. Terror groups have said that public venues are potential targets. Why, then, is little being done to prepare? Air attacks. Any destructive device or substance that can be deliv-

ered via the air must also be a concern to law enforcement. Typical Saturday and Sunday football games at open-air venues are usually    a prop plane, helicopter or even a drone. Before 9/11, prop planes pulling advertisement banners were rampant. That has since de-   day. Sniper/observer teams have the capability to observe FAA tail numbers to report any unauthorized aircraft. Countermeasures to such must be given thought and not merely dismissed due to the probability of the occurrence.

Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN). These types of attacks could be delivered via an aircraft and must not be

overlooked as a possible method. The National Center for Biomed- ical Research and Training (NCBRT) at Louisiana State University provides much-needed training in areas of domestic and interna- tional terrorism, weapons of mass destruction and high-consequence  to understanding the potential threats to venues and the complexity of the problem.

The Role of the Police Sniper It starts with a properly trained police sniper; one who is not new to - craft. Unbeknown to many, every weekend there are police snipers    occurring for quite some time. The protocol or threat matrix for de- ploying snipers may vary from agency to agency but there are many that deploy for every event or game at the venue for which they are responsible. This occurs at events for the NFL, NHL, MLB, NCAA and NASCAR.         

venue has been denied. An entire article could be devoted to chang- ing closed-minded thinking on the part of police administrators and venue managers that prevent this. Nonetheless, police snipers are at these venues. The problem that exists is lack of formalized train- ing. Snipers must train what they are asked to do. To simply deploy snipers at the venue in elevated positions who have never been given   deployed in somewhat of a checklist manner for their agency, with their superiors having no expectation that they could intervene to save lives. However, this creates a frustrating state of mind for those  directing SWAT assets to a problem if there is a threat in either the inside or outside areas. Their skill sets in observation and equipment are optimized for potential issues at public venues.

The Role of SWAT As mentioned previously, police snipers deploy at venues every week- end across the country. The mere placement of two, 2-man sniper/ observer teams to cover the inside and outside of a venue is not ade- quate. Those teams are usually in an elevated area and it is impossi- ble to have coverage for 100 percent of the venue. There is inherent   therein lies the need for the SWAT asset to be present at the venue, and not in a reactionary

role. These smaller, quick react teams can be placed throughout the venue to respond to any incident that may occur warranting their response. Additional sniper teams may deploy in a quick roll out       

to problems inside and outside of the venue. The common mistake is to assume that an attack will occur inside the venue. The outside parking lots and roads must be of great concern and sniper/observer teams must have enough assets or the ability to quickly relocate to  who can surveil a potential suspect(s) undetected and relay critical information to the teams and command and control. Command and control is paramount to the success of any incident at the venue and  


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